What is a Cybercrime?
Cybercrime is a criminal activity that either targets or uses a computer, a computer network, or a networked device.
Most, but not all, cybercrime is committed by cybercriminals or hackers who want to make money. Cybercrime is carried out by individuals or organizations. Some cybercriminals are organized, use advanced techniques, and are highly technically skilled. Others are novice hackers.
Rarely, cybercrime aims to damage computers for reasons other than profit. These could be political or personal.
Cybercrime can be anything like:
- Stealing of personal data
- Identity stolen
- For stealing organizational data
- Steal bank card details.
- Hack emails for gaining information.
- Cyberextortion (demanding money to prevent a threatened attack).
- Cryptojacking (where hackers mine cryptocurrency using resources they do not own).
- Cyberespionage (where hackers access government or company data).
What is Confusion Matrix?
A confusion matrix is a table that is often used to describe the performance of a classification model (or “classifier”) on a set of test data for which the true values are known. The confusion matrix itself is relatively simple to understand, but the related terminology can be confusing.
In simple words, a confusion matrix is a technique for summarizing the performance of a classification algorithm.
A few terms associated with the confusion matrix are
- True positive: An instance for which both predicted and actual values are positive.
- True negative: An instance for which both predicted and actual values are negative.
- False Positive(TYPE 1 ERROR): An instance for which the predicted value is positive but the actual value is negative.
- False Negative(TYPE 2ERROR): An instance for which the predicted value is negative but the actual value is positive.
A confusion matrix follows the below format:
Need for Confusion Matrix in Machine learning:
- It evaluates the performance of the classification models, when they make predictions on test data, and tells how good our classification model is.
- It not only tells the error made by the classifiers but also the type of errors such as it is either type-I or type-II error.
- With the help of the confusion matrix, we can calculate the different parameters for the model, such as accuracy, precision, etc.
Confusion Matrix’s implementation in monitoring Cyber Attacks:
The data set was used for The Third International Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining Tools Competition, which was held in conjunction with KDD-99 The Fifth International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. The competition task was to build a network intrusion detector, a predictive model capable of distinguishing between “bad’’ connections, called intrusions or attacks, and “good’’ normal connections. This database contains a standard set of data to be audited, which includes a wide variety of intrusions simulated in a military network environment.
In the KDD99 dataset these four attack classes (DoS, U2R, R2L, and probe) are divided into 22 different attack classes that tabulated below:
In the KDD Cup 99, the criteria used for evaluation of the participant entries is the Cost Per Test
(CPT) computed using the confusion matrix and a given cost matrix.
• True Positive (TP): The amount of attack detected when it is actually attacked.
• True Negative (TN): The amount of normal detected when it is actually normal.
• False Positive (FP): The amount of attack detected when it is actually normal (False alarm).
• False Negative (FN): The amount of normal detected when it is actually attacked.
A confusion matrix is a tabular summary of the number of correct and incorrect predictions made by a classifier. It is used to measure the performance of a classification model. It can be used to evaluate the performance of a classification model through the calculation of
performance metrics like accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score.